Varisco Usa Inc. 704-399-0589 moc.ocpocsalta.ti@ocsirav.tropxe |

Liquid List

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  • ACETONE

    Alternative name
    Dimethylketone
    Formula
    CH3COCH3.
    Relative density
    0,8
    Viscosity
    Water-thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction, PTFE, Kalrez® or EPR elastomers are recommended. Shaft sealing is critical due to the hazardous nature of the liquid; use either a mechanical seal or a sealless pump design.
    Remarks
    Used in making acetic anhydride; solvent for cellulose acetate; solvent in paints, lacquers, and adhesives; also used as a solvent in epoxy resins and pharmaceuticals; used in purest form to clean and dry precision parts.
  • ADHESIVE

    Alternative name
    Cement, glue, mucilage, paste
    Pump construction
    Pump construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel depending on the corrosive nature of individual adhesives. Elastomers also vary depending on individual solvents used in the adhesive. Shaft sealing may be packing or mechanical seals. Generally, adhesives are very viscous and the pump design must be capable of handling those viscosities. Adhesives may also contain abrasives and the pump design must be capable of handling particulate.
    Remarks
    Adhesives are used in the manufacture of cardboard boxes, plywood, furniture, paper bags, pressure sensitive tapes and many industries including automotive, printing, manufacturing, etc.
  • ALCOHOL

    Alternative name
    Alcol
    Viscosity
    Low viscosity
    Pump construction
    Normally considered to mean Ethyl Alcohol, q.v. For other alcohols, see specific names, such as methyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, etc.
  • ALKYD RESINS

    Viscosity
    May range from 100 cPs. to over 1000 cPs depending on temperature and make-up of particular alkyd resin.
    Pump construction
    Construction recommendations depend on individual formulations. Mechanical shaft seals may be used depending on viscosity and temperature.
    Remarks
    They are used as protective and decorative coatings for metals, wood, paper, textiles; are used in adhesives, printing inks, floor coverings; as vehicles in automotive and industrial finishes; and in oil and water paints, lacquers, and enamels.
  • AMMONIA

    Alternative name
    Anhydrous Ammonia; see also Ammonium Hydroxide
    Formula
    NH3
    Viscosity
    0.3 cPs. / 2.13 SSU
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction, neoprene or buna n elastomers are recommended. Double mechanical seals with oil reservoir are normally used for shaft sealing. Pump design should be suitable for a thin, non-lubricating liquid.
    Remarks
    The largest volume of ammonia is used for fertilizers. Other uses include production of nitric acid, urea, acrylonitrile; refrigeration; solvent. Ammonia liquid causes burns
  • AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE

    Alternative name
    Aqua ammonia; aqueous ammonia, ammonia solution, ammonium hydrate
    Formula
    NH4OH
    Viscosity
    Slightly less than 1.0
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction, neoprene or buna n elastomers are recommended. Pumps that have been used for handling ammonium hydroxide will rust badly when they are drained; fill with liquid or drained and fill with oil to prevent rusting. Standard seals have a tendency to dry out and harden if left exposed to air for any length of time.
    Remarks
    Used in making textiles, rayon, rubber, fertilizer, plastics, ammonia soaps, lubricants, ink, explosives and in the saponifying of fats and oils, as a detergent and household cleanser
  • AMYL ACETATE

    Alternative name
    Amylacetic ester, banana oil
    Formula
    CH3COOC5H11
    Relative density
    0,88
    Viscosity
    Slightly greater than water
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction, PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended. Pump design must be suitable for handling a thin liquid.
    Remarks
    Solvent for lacquers and paints, used in dry cleaning preparations, as a flavoring agent and in printing and finishing textile fabrics.
  • AMYL ALCOHOL

    Alternative name
    n-amyl alcohol, primary; n-butyl carbinol
    Formula
    CH3(CH2)4OH
    Relative density
    0,81
    Viscosity
    Water thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction, EPR elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended. Pump design should be capable of handling a thin liquid.
  • ANIMAL FATS

    Pump construction
    See Fats
  • AQUEOUS AMMONIA

    Pump construction
    See Ammonium Hydroxide
  • AROCLOR

    Pump construction
    See Heat Transfer Liquids
  • AROMATIC SOLVENT

    Pump construction
    See Solvents
  • ASPHALT

    Alternative name
    Asphaltum, bitumen, pitch, Trinidad pitch, mineral pitch, petroleum asphalt
    Viscosity
    Varies widely with type and temperature, normally handled in the 150 to 205ºC / 300 to 400ºF range at which temperature viscosity is usually in the 100 cPs. to 5000 cPs. range.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is recommended. Normally, packing is used for a shaft seal but mechanical seals have also been used with success. Pump jacketing is normally required to keep the product at temperature. Asphalt is a solid a room temperature which necessitates bringing the pump to temperature before operating.
    Remarks
    Asphalt is used for paving roads, roofing, waterproofing, paints, softener in rubber blends, and fungicides.
  • ASPHALT, EMULSIFIED

    Viscosity
    Usually relatively thin; almost water-like
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Packing is the normal shaft seal. Special construction features are required depending on the particular pump design.
    Remarks
    Used for coating roadways, cement waterproofing and roofing compounds.
  • BARIUM SULFATE SLURRY

    Alternative name
    Barite
    Formula
    BaSO4
    Viscosity
    Varies with concentration and liquid used to make slurry
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. An abrasion resistant mechanical seal should be used for shaft sealing. Due to the abrasive characteristics of the liquid, design features to combat abrasion must be used.
    Remarks
    It is used as a pigment for paints, filler for plastics and inks and in the medical industry
  • BEESWAX

    Pump construction
    See Wax
  • BENZENE

    Alternative name
    Benzol
    Formula
    C6H6
    Viscosity
    Water-thin
    Pump construction
    Benzene is a hazardous liquid to handle. Consult individual pump manufacturer for recommendations.
    Remarks
    Benzene is used in making styrene, synthetic detergents, insecticides, fumigants and solvents
  • BENZOL

    Pump construction
    See Benzene
  • BIPHENYL

    Pump construction
    See Heat Transfer Liquids
  • BITUMEN

    Pump construction
    See Asphalt
  • BLACK LIQUOR SOAP

    Alternative name
    Black liquor skimmings
    Viscosity
    Ranges from 22 cPs. to 5500 cPs
    Pump construction
    Cast iron or stainless steel construction may be appropriate depending on individual requirements. Pump jacketing may be required if the product is handled at elevated temperature.
  • BLACK STRAP MOLASSES

    Pump construction
    See Molasses
  • BLOOD

    Alternative name
    Animal Blood
    Relative density
    1
    Viscosity
    Slightly more than water
    Pump construction
    The pump recommendation above is not intended for handling human blood. For packing house service, the construction described should be considered expendable. Consider steel fitted pumps if dirt or sand can get mixed in with the blood. Pumps operate best if slowed down to better handle the foreign materials.
    Remarks
    Blood from packing houses is used for fertilizer, adhesives, and feed for hogs and chickens.
  • BRIGHT STOCK

    Viscosity
    Highly viscous; check with individual manufacturers for specific viscosity
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n is usually suitable for elastomers. Packing must be used due to viscosity.
    Remarks
    Used for blending with neutral oils in preparing automotive engine lubricating oils.
  • BRINE

    Alternative name
    There are many types of brine, such as calcium chloride and sodium chloride. Look for the specific type if known.
    Pump construction
    Iron pumps handling brine will corrode rapidly when exposed to air. Check equipment construction in the rest of the system for guidance on selecting pump construction. To reduce possibility of electrolytic corrosion, do not use dissimilar metals.
    Remarks
    Brine is used in some cooling systems, for food preservation, and for cleaning some products or systems.
  • BUNKER "C" FUEL OIL

    Pump construction
    See Fuel Oil #6
  • BUTADIENE

    Alternative name
    Vinylethylene
    Formula
    H2C: CHHC: CH2
    Relative density
    0,62
    Viscosity
    Water-thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended. Use a mechanical seal or sealless design because of the hazardous nature of this product.
    Remarks
    Used in the formulation of styrene-butadiene and nitrile-butadiene rubbers; latex paints; rocket fuels.
  • BUTANE

    Formula
    C4H10
    Viscosity
    0.1 cPs. / 0.78 SSU
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton® elastomers are recommended. A mechanical seal pump must be used due to the hazardous nature of this liquid.
    Remarks
    Used for making synthetic rubber, high-octane fuels, mixed with propane for household and industrial fuels. Is one of the liquids referred to as LP-Gas, although propane is more frequently referred to as LP-Gas.
  • BUTANOL

    Pump construction
    See Butyl Alcohol
  • BUTYL ALCOHOL

    Alternative name
    1-butanol
    Formula
    CH3(CH2)2CH2OH
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton® elastomers are recommended. Use of a mechanical shaft seal is recommended.
    Remarks
    Used in preparation of esters and butyl acetates; solvent for resins and coatings; plasticizer; detergent formulations; some urea and melamine resins
  • CALCIUM CHLORIDE BRINE

    Formula
    CaCl2
    Relative density
    1.1 - 1.3
    Viscosity
    Water-thin
    Pump construction
    Rapid corrosion will take place when an iron pump that has handled brine is exposed to air. Avoid the use of dissimilar metals to reduce tendency for electrolytic corrosion.
    Remarks
    Used for dust-proofing roads, thawing snow and ice, freeze-proofing coal or sand, concrete conditioning; paper and pulp industry; as refrigeration brine; as a ballast for weighting implement tires and in pharmaceuticals.
  • CALCIUM STEARATE

    Formula
    Ca(C18H35O2)2
    Viscosity
    Depends on concentration, but normally varies from 44 cPs. to 200 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. User may request other metallurgies, depending on end use of the liquid or the solvent if used in a solution Jacketed features may be helpful when handling molten calcium stearate.. Slurry form may require abrasion-resistant features. Check on the abrasive nature of liquid or possible corrosive attack on seal materials.
    Remarks
    Used as a water repellent, flatting agent in lacquers, in varnishes, paints, enamels, plastics; as a lubricant; in emulsions, cements, wax crayons; as a stabilizer for vinyl resins and as an anti-caking agent in foods. May be abrasive if handled as a slurry.
  • CANE SYRUP

    Pump construction
    See Sugar Syrup
  • CARBOLIC ACID

    Pump construction
    See Phenol
  • CARBON DISULFIDE

    Alternative name
    Carbon Bisulfide
    Formula
    CS2
    Relative density
    1,3
    Viscosity
    Water-thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. Other construction may be specified due to end use of the product. Viton® elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.
    Remarks
    Used in making viscose rayon, cellophane, carbon tetrachloride and flotation agents; as a veterinary medicine; as a solvent for fats, resins, rubber, waxes and other chemical products; in varnishes, lacquers, paint and varnish removers; and in making rubber textiles, fumigants, matches, preservatives, and pesticides.
  • CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

    Alternative name
    Tetrachloromethane, perchloromethane
    Formula
    CCl4
    Relative density
    1,6
    Viscosity
    Water-thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. If contaminated with moisture, carbon tetrachloride can form hydrochloric acid which is corrosive to cast iron pumps. Be sure that system is clean and free of water to avoid corrosion problems indicated above. Liquid needs to be Adry- or anhydrous. Viton elastomers and a mechanical shaft seal are recommended.
    Remarks
    Used for refrigerants and propellants, metal degreasing, grain fumigants and insecticides, fire extinguishers, dry cleaning solvents, and general solvents
  • CASTOR OIL

    Alternative name
    Ricinus oil
    Viscosity
    44 cPs. to 660 cPs. / 200 to 3,000 SSU
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but may vary depending on end use of product. Buna n elastomers are satisfactory. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.
    Remarks
    Used in protective coatings, plastics, lubricants, fatty acids, textiles, rubber, hydraulic fluids, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, flavoring, and insulating compounds
  • CAUSTIC

    Pump construction
    See Sodium Hydroxide
  • CAUSTIC POTASH

    Pump construction
    See Sodium Hydroxide
  • CAUSTIC SODA

    Pump construction
    See Sodium Hydroxide
  • CHLORDAN

    Alternative name
    Chlordane
    Formula
    C10H6Cl8
    Viscosity
    22 cPs. @ 38ºC / 100 SSU @ 100ºF
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Will cause rapid rusting of iron parts when pump is left exposed to air. Keep full of liquid or flush and fill with oil. Viton®, PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.
    Remarks
    Used as an insecticide in oil emulsions and dispersible liquids. Liquid is harmful if swallowed; can be absorbed through the skin. When used as an insecticide, Chlordan is reduced with water and becomes water-thin.
  • CHLOROFORM

    Alternative name
    Trichloromethane
    Formula
    CHCl3
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Keep pump full of liquid at all times to prevent rapid oxidation or rusting. If pump is drained, fill with oil; any dilution or impurity can make this liquid corrosive. Viton® elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended
    Remarks
    Used in making fluorocarbon refrigerants and propellants, fluorocarbon plastics, dyes and drugs, anesthetics; also used as a general solvent, fumigant, and insecticide. Vapor is harmful. Liquid may be fatal if swallowed.
  • CHLOROTHENE

    Pump construction
    See Trichloroethane
  • CHOCOLATE

    Alternative name
    Bitter chocolate, sweet chocolate, milk chocolate, chocolate liquor, chocolate coating
    Viscosity
    Varies widely from 2,000 cPs. to several thousand cPs. depending on type and process; also varies over normal temperature range of 38ºC to 93ºC / 100°F to 200°F. Chocolate viscosity is often expressed in degrees MacMichael. This is a standard viscosity unit of measure in the chocolate industry.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron pumps are normally satisfactory but stainless steel may also be used. The handling of chocolate with positive displacement pumps can involve a number of challenges. Provide complete application details to Varisco for recommendations.
  • CHOLINE CHLORIDE

    Formula
    (CH3)3N(C1)CH2OH
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory for concentrations up to 75%. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.
    Remarks
    Used in medicine, nutrition, and as an animal feed supplement.
  • CLAY COATINGS

    Pump construction
    See Paper Coatings
  • COAL TAR

    Viscosity
    Highly viscous or semi-solid at ambient temperatures. Normal pumping temperature ranges from 66ºC to 260ºC / 150°F to 500°F with viscosities ranging from 40 cPs. to several thousand cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Pump jacketing features are recommended to keep the product liquid especially at start up.
    Remarks
    A major raw material for a variety of dyes, drugs and other organic chemicals. Coal tar or its fractions can also be used for waterproofing, paints, pipe coating, roofing, insulation, pesticides and in medicine.
  • COAL-TAR PITCH

    Viscosity
    Solid at ambient temperatures; viscosity depends on the grade and handling temperature.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Pump jacketing features are recommended to keep the product liquid especially at start up. The product may contain abrasives that would require use of abrasion resistant parts in the pump.
    Remarks
    Used as a binder for carbon electrodes, as a base for paints and as a plasticizer for elastomers and polymers, extenders, saturants and impregnants. Also used in impregnation of fiber pipe for electrical conduits and drainage, foundry core compounds, briquetting coal, paving and roofing.
  • COCOA BUTTER

    Alternative name
    Cacao butter, theobroma oil
    Viscosity
    Variable, depending on how it was put in solution and at what temperature it is being handled. Can range from a few hundred cPs. to several thousand cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but stainless steel may be required. Pump jacketing may be required to keep the product liquid.
    Remarks
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but stainless steel may be required. Pump jacketing may be required to keep the product liquid.
  • COCONUT OIL

    Alternative name
    Coconut palm oil, cocoanut oil; coconut butter
    Viscosity
    In the range of 22-110 cPs., depending on temperature.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but stainless steel may be specified as well. Buna n elastomers are recommended.
    Remarks
    Used in soaps; in foodstuffs; cosmetics; candles; emulsions; alkyd resins; lubricating greases; synthetic detergents; as a butter substitute and as a source of glycerin and fatty acids.
  • COD-LIVER OIL

    Alternative name
    Morrhua oil
    Viscosity
    Approximately 110 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory but user needs may dictate stainless steel. Buna n elastomers are recommended.
    Remarks
    Used in medicine for its vitamin A and D content and in leather dressing.
  • CONTACT CEMENT

    Alternative name
    Rubber cement
    Viscosity
    Varies depending on the particular type of contact cement but is normally considered to be quite viscous
    Pump construction
    Cast iron or steel construction is satisfactory. Choice of elastomer depends on the particular grade of solvent used.
    Remarks
    Used for wide variety of adhesive-type applications.
  • COOKING OILS, HOT

    Viscosity
    Water-thin at normal operating temperatures of 150ºC-204ºC / 300°F-400°F
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended due to temperature. Some buildup on pump parts from residues in the oil may occur when continuously recirculating oils being used to fry certain kinds of meat.
    Remarks
    Hot cooking oils are used primarily for deep fat frying of vegetables and meats
  • CORN OIL

    Pump construction
    See Vegetable Oil
  • CORN STARCH

    Pump construction
    See Starch
  • CORN SYRUP

    Alternative name
    Glucose, starch syrup
    Viscosity
    Varies, depending on amount of water vapor removed and temperature, but normally from 5,000 cPs. to 22,000 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory although stainless steel may also be specified. Buna n elastomers are satisfactory. Corn syrup may be handled at elevated temperature to reduce viscosity; pump jacketing features should be considered if this is the case. Mechanical seals may be used depending on liquid viscosity.
    Remarks
    Used in making candy, jelly, and other food products, alcoholic fermentations, pharmaceuticals, and in treating tobacco.
  • COTTONSEED OIL

    Relative density
    0,92
    Viscosity
    44 to 110 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are satisfactory.
    Remarks
    Used in medicine, soap stock, lubricants, glycerol, cosmetic creams; in food as an olio or butter substitute, and in salad and cooking oils.
  • CREOSOTE

    Alternative name
    Creosote wood-tar; creosote coal-tar, often referred to as creosote
    Relative density
    1,1
    Viscosity
    Varies, depending on the source, but normally 22 cPs.-66 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are satisfactory. Mechanical seals may be used depending on the grade of creosote.
    Remarks
    Creosote is used for wood preservatives and as a disinfectant.
  • CRESOL

    Formula
    CH3C6H4OH
    Relative density
    1,04
    Viscosity
    8 cPs. - 22 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are satisfactory; use PTFE for meta.
  • CRESYLIC ACID

    Pump construction
    See Cresol
  • CRUDE OIL

    Viscosity
    Varies, depending on oil field source. Can range from 8 cPs. to several thousand cPs.; some crudes have to be heated before they can be easily handled.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory although some crude oils may require use of some stainless steel parts. Elastomer recommendation depends on the particular grade of crude and may range from buna n to PTFE.
    Remarks
    crude is refined to give natural gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, fuel oil, lubricating oil, paraffin wax, road oil, asphalt and coke. Crude oil and some of its fractions are major raw materials for many chemicals.
  • DENATURED ALCOHOL

    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. Elastomers used must be compatible with the denaturant.
  • DETERGENTS

    Alternative name
    Synthetic detergents, syndets
    Relative density
    1.0 - 1.3
    Viscosity
    Varies widely over the range from 22 cPs. to 16,500 cPs., depending on make-up and temperature.
    Pump construction
    Pump construction varies with individual applications. Close work with user and supplier of product is necessary to arrive at good pump recommendation.
    Remarks
    Detergents are used primarily as household cleaners. Also used in industry for textile scouring, bleaching, de-sizing, dyeing, printing and finishing, for metal cleaning and pickling, for cleaning and sterilizing food processing equipment, in cosmetics, processing leather, fire fighting making synthetic rubber.
  • DIATOMACEOUS EARTH

    Alternative name
    Diatomite, kieselguhr, filter acid
    Pump construction
    Diatomaceous Earth is always handled as a mixture with another liquid. Pump construction varies based on the liquid. Diatomaceous earth is mildly abrasive and a pump must be able to handle this.
    Remarks
    Diatomaceous earth is used for filtration, clarifying an decolorizing, as a mineral filler, thermal insulation, as an absorbent, an abrasive and as a source of silica in chemical production.
  • DICHLOROMETHANE

    Pump construction
    See Methylene Chloride
  • DIESEL FUEL

    Pump construction
    See Fuel Oil #1 & #2
  • DIETHANOLAMINE

    Alternative name
    DEA
    Formula
    (HOCH2CH2) 2NH
    Relative density
    1,1
    Viscosity
    Normally in the 110 cPs. to 220 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory although other construction may be requested by the end user. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended.
    Remarks
    Diatomaceous earth is used for filtration, clarifying an decolorizing, as a mineral filler, thermal insulation, as an absorbent, an abrasive and as a source of silica in chemical production.
  • DIETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Alternative name
    DEG, dihydroxydiethyl ether
    Formula
    CH2OHCH2OCH2CH2OH
    Relative density
    1,1
    Viscosity
    Several hundred cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended.
    Remarks
    It is used as a textile lubricant, a conditioner and softener for casin, gelatin, vulcanizing fibers, book-binding pastes, synthetic resins as a solvent for nitrocellulose, gums, resins, oils, organic compounds, for moistening and softening agent for cork compositions, glues, parchments, paper, tobacco, etc. It also can be used in cosmetics and as an anti-freeze to lower the freezing point of water.
  • DIISOCYANATE

    Pump construction
    See Toluene Diisocyanate
  • DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE

    Alternative name
    DMF
    Formula
    HCON(CH3)2
    Relative density
    0,95
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers and standard mechanical shaft seals are recommended.
    Remarks
    Used as a solvent for vinyl resins an dacetylene, solvent for butadiene and some petroleum components, used in dyestuffs and pharmaceuticals.
  • DIMETHYLKETONE

    Pump construction
    See Acetone
  • DIOCTYL PHTHALATE

    Alternative name
    Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate, DOP
    Formula
    C6H4 [COOCH2CH(C2H5)C4H9]2
    Relative density
    0,99
    Viscosity
    66-88 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE and Kalrez® are the best elastomers to use although Viton® is fair. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.
    Remarks
    Used as a plasticizer for many resins and synthetic rubbers, used as a barrier fluid in handling TDI an other foam liquids.
  • DIVINYLBENZENE

    Alternative name
    Alkane, detergent alkylate
    Formula
    C6H4(CH: CH2)2
    Relative density
    0,93
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers and mechanical shaft seals are recommended.
    Remarks
    used in drying oils, casting resins and polyesters.
  • DODECYLBENZENE

    Alternative name
    Alkane, detergent alkylate
    Formula
    C12H25C6H5
    Relative density
    0,86
    Viscosity
    11 cPs. / 50 SSU
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers and mechanical shaft seals are recommended.
    Remarks
    Used in making synthetic detergents.
  • DOP

    Pump construction
    See Dioctyl Phthalate
  • DOWTHERM

    Pump construction
    See Heat Transfer Liquids
  • EDIBLE OILS

    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers and mechanical shaft seals are usually used.
  • EMULSIFIER

    Pump construction
    See Emulsion
  • EMULSION

    Pump construction
    Construction varies based on the particular emulsion. 
  • ENAMEL

    Viscosity
    Ranges from 22 cPs. to 5,500 cPs., depending on make-up of the enamel.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomers may be Viton® or PTFE depending on solvents used. Pump construction capable of handling mild abrasives should be considered.
    Remarks
    It is usually intended for use as top coats and contains relatively less pigment than paint formulations for priming or surfacing.
  • EPOXY RESINS

    Viscosity
    Ranges from 1,200 to 22,000 cPs., depending on make-up of the resin and the temperature it is being handled
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. EPR or Neoprene elastomers are recommended. A sealless pump design may be used. Mechanical shaft seals and packing have also been used with success.
    Remarks
    Epoxy resins are used for surface coatings, as adhesives and for laminating to make tanks, pipe and some structural parts, some are cast to make plastic metal-forming tools and dyes; other grades are used for potting and encapsulation of electrical parts.
  • ETHANOL

    Pump construction
    See Ethyl Alcohol
  • ETHANOLAMINE

    Alternative name
    MEA, monoethanolamine, colamine
    Formula
    HOCH2CH2NH2
    Relative density
    1,02
    Viscosity
    100-200 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as are mechanical shaft seals. 
    Remarks
    Used as a non-ionic detergent in dry cleaning, emulsion paints, polishes and agricultural sprays, used as a chemical intermediate, in pharmaceuticals and as a corrosion inhibitor.
  • ETHYL ACETATE

    Alternative name
    Acetic ether, acetic ester
    Formula
    CH3COOC2H5
    Relative density
    0,89
    Viscosity
    Water-thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as an mechanical shaft seals.
    Remarks
    Used as a lacquer and plastic solvent, as a general solvent, in flavoring and making perfumes, in pharmaceuticals
  • ETHYL ACRYLATE

    Formula
    CH2: CHCOOC2H5
    Relative density
    0,92
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in making polymers, acrylic paints, as a chemical intermediate
  • ETHYL ALCOHOL

    Alternative name
    Alcohol, grain alcohol, ethanol
    Formula
    C2H5OH
    Relative density
    0,82
    Viscosity
    Water thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as are mechanical shaft seals.
    Remarks
    Used as a solvent and in the manufacture of dyes, synthetic drugs, synthetic rubber, detergents, cleaning solutions, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and explosives. Used as an anti-freeze, as a beverage and a rocket fuel.
  • ETHYL CHLORIDE

    Alternative name
    Chloroethane
    Formula
    C2H5C1
    Relative density
    0,92
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory although the presence of water can cause rapid corrosion. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended and Viton® has fair compatibility. Mechanical shaft seals recommended.
    Remarks
    Used as an anesthetic in medicine, in organic synthesis and as an alkylating agent; solvent for sulfur, fats, oils, resins and waxes. Used as an insecticide. Ethyl chloride is extremely flammable.
  • ETHYLENE ALCOHOL

    Pump construction
    See Ethylene Glycol
  • ETHYLENE CHLORIDE

    Pump construction
    See Ethylene Dichloride
  • ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE

    Alternative name
    Ethylene chloride, 1.2-dichloroethane
    Formula
    C1CH2CH2C1
    Relative density
    1,25
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in making vinyl chloride; as a solvent for fats, oils, waxes, rubber, various resins, gums; used as a fumigant, in dry-cleaning solvents, in lacquers, paints, varnish and finish removers, as a metal degreaser, in soaps and in wetting or penetrating agents.
  • ETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Alternative name
    Ethylene alcohol, glycol
    Formula
    CH2OHCH2OH
    Relative density
    1,1
    Viscosity
    7 to 15 cPs. range; 50-50 mix by weight with water has viscosity of 8 cPs. at 24°C / 75°F
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used as an anti-freeze in automobiles, for brake fluid; used in making polyester fibers in films, as a dye solvent; used in lacquers, resins, printing inks, glue mixtures, as a solvent for waxes, resins and drugs.
  • ETHYLENE OXIDE

    Formula
    CH2 CH2O
    Relative density
    0,87
    Viscosity
    Water-thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended. Due to the explosive nature of this product, double mechanical seals or a sealless design pump should be used.
    Remarks
    . Basic material used in manufacturing several of the glycols, in making acrylonitrile, ethanolamines; used in making detergents; petroleum emulsifiers; also used as a rocket propellant.
  • FATS

    Alternative name
    Animal fat, cold fat, liquid fat, hot fat, lard, hashed fat and ground fat
    Viscosity
    For liquid fat, hot fat or melted lard, viscosity is water-thin. For hashed fat or ground fat, viscosity is very indefinite, but on the order of 22,000 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n is satisfactory for ambient temperature applications; Viton® may be required for high temperature applications. Use of a mechanical shaft seal depends on the product pumped. Cold fat applications generally required us of a packed pump.
  • FATTY ACID

    Alternative name
    Olec acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid
    Relative density
    0,84
    Viscosity
    Several hundred cPs., depending on the specific acid and temperature. Normal temperature range is from ambient to 93°C / 200°F.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is generally acceptable although stainless steel may be required if slight corrosion on cast iron can not be tolerated. Viton®, PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.
    Remarks
    Fatty acids are used in the making of soaps and synthetic detergents, lubricants, rubber products, cosmetics, waterproofing and as a nutrient.
  • FILTER AID

    Pump construction
    See Diatomaceous Earth
  • FISH OIL

    Relative density
    0,93
    Viscosity
    20-70 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Are used as nutrients, source of vitamins, in soaps and for leather dressing.
  • FISH SOLUBLES

    Viscosity
    Normally in the 220-5,500 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are normally acceptable. This product may be abrasive; choice of sealing options and abrasion resistant pump options should be considered based on the product handled.
  • FLUOROCARBONS

    Pump construction
    See Freons
  • FOAM

    Pump construction
    See Polyurethane Foams
  • FORMALDEHYDE

    Alternative name
    Oxymethylene, formic aldehyde, methanal, formalin
    Formula
    HCHO
    Relative density
    1.1 (37% solution)
    Viscosity
    37% solution - water-thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction may be used on an expendable basis. Percent concentration and end use of product may require other construction. PTFE and Kalrez® are recommended elastomers with Viton® rated fair. A mechanical shaft seal is recommended.
    Remarks
    Used in urea and melamine resins, in making phenolic resins, ethylene glycol, fertilizer, dyes and medicine. Also used in embalming fluids and as a preservative. Formaldehyde causes irritation of the skin, eyes, nose and throat.
  • FORMALIN

    Pump construction
    See Formaldehyde
  • FREONS

    Alternative name
    Fluorinated hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons
    Formula
    Depends on particular Freon
    Relative density
    1.19 - 1.56
    Viscosity
    0.2 to 0.4 cPs
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Choice of elastomers depends on the particular Freon used. Mechanical shaft seals or sealless pump designs are recommended.
    Remarks
    Current use of Freons is limited mostly to refrigeration applications due to concerns of ozone depletion with Freons used as propellants or cleaning agents.
  • FRUIT JUICES

    Viscosity
    Varies from thin to thick, depending on the stage in the process
    Pump construction
    Pumps designed for sanitary service and constructed of stainless steel are normally required for this application.
  • FUEL OIL, #1, #2, #3, #4

    Relative density
    0,9
    Viscosity
    8 to 88 cPs., depending on number and temperature
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are normally satisfactory but Viton® may also be required. Mechanical shaft seals are recommended.
    Remarks
    #1 fuel oil is normally used in vaporizing type burners; #2 is used for domestic heating; #'s 3 and 4 are used in industrial furnaces.
  • FUEL OIL, #5 & #6

    Alternative name
    Bunker fuels, Bunker "C" Oil
    Relative density
    0,9
    Viscosity
    Varies from 66-13,000 cPs. @ 21°C / 70°F. Normally handled at temperatures in the 120 to 150F range (50-1700 CPs.) for ease of handling.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are usually acceptable with PTFE sometimes required depending on the particular liquid. Mechanical shaft seals are recommended.
    Remarks
    They are used as a fuel in many large commercial and public buildings as well as in large industrial plants and power plants. Occasional abrasives and/or sludge in these heavy oils can cause some pump or seal problems.
  • FULLER'S EARTH

    Remarks
    It is used for decolorizing of oils and other liquids, for floor-sweeping compounds, cosmetics, rubber filler and as a filtering medium
  • FUMIGANT

    Pump construction
    A broad term used almost synonymously with insecticide
    Remarks
    used to control harmful insects
  • FURFURAL

    Alternative name
    Ant oil, artificial; furfuraldehyde
    Formula
    C4H3OCHO
    Relative density
    1,2
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used as a solvent in the refining of lubricating oils, solvent for nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate, used in the preparation of synthetic resins, as a weed killer and fungicide.
  • GASOLINE

    Formula
    C4H3OCHO
    Relative density
    0,75
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton® elastomers are recommended. Pay special attention to inlet conditions based vapor pressure of the particular grade.
    Remarks
    It is also used as a solvent. It is dangerous because of its flammable nature.
  • GELATIN

    Viscosity
    Varies widely, depending on temperature and liquid used to put gelatin into solution. Normally handled in 49° to 71°C / 120° to 160°F range.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory but may vary depending on the requirements of the end user. Buna n elastomers are generally acceptable but should be verified with the end user. Use of a mechanical shaft seal depends on viscosity of the particular product.
    Remarks
    It is used in making photographic film, sizing, plastic compounds, textile and paper work, foods, rubber substitutes, adhesives, cements, capsules for medicinals, etc.
  • GENETRON

    Pump construction
    Trade name for a line of fluorinated hydrocarbons made by Allied Chemical's General Chemical Division. They have numbers and properties similar to Freons, q.v.
  • GLUCOSE

    Pump construction
    See Corn Syrup
  • GLUE

    Pump construction
    See Adhesive
  • GLYCERIN

    Alternative name
    Glycerol, glycyl alcohol
    Formula
    C3H5(OH)3
    Relative density
    1,3
    Viscosity
    Varies from 44 to 1,000 cPs. depending on temperature and concentration
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in alkyd resins, cellophane, explosives, ester gums, pharmaceuticals, perfumery, cosmetics, foodstuffs, as a solvent, in printer's ink rolls, as an emulsifying agent, in anti-freeze, for paper coatings and finishes, for special soaps, lubricants and softeners and as a hydraulic fluid.
  • GLYCEROL

    Pump construction
    See Glycerin
  • GLYCOL

    Pump construction
    See Ethylene Glycol
  • GRAPE JUICE

    Pump construction
    See Fruit Juices
  • GREASE

    Alternative name
    Lubricating grease, automotive grease, bearing grease, etc. For hot cooking grease see Cooking Oils, Hot.
    Viscosity
    From 2,100 cPs. to several hundred thousand cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Shaft packing is normally used although a mechanical shaft seal may be used if viscosity permits. Grease is normally shear thinning so special attention must be paid to pump port sizing and motor sizing for correct horsepower.
  • HEAT TRANSFER LIQUIDS

    Alternative name
    Heat transfer oil, HTO
    Relative density
    Approx. 1.0
    Viscosity
    Less than 1 cPs. at pumping temperatures
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are normally recommended due to heat but PTFE or Kalrez® may also be needed. Mechanical shaft seals are recommended. Because of the low viscosity, pump capacity is sometimes less than nominal. To extend the service life, it is recommended that the pumps be run at rated speed or less and that the operating pressure in the system be kept as low as possible. Heat transfer liquid pumps are often critical to the success of an extensive operation, standby pumps should be considered.
    Remarks
    Heat transfer liquids are used instead of steam for transferring heat from a source to a point of use such as dies, presses, cooking vessels, processing equipment, etc.
  • HEPTANE

    Alternative name
    Dipropylmethane
    Formula
    CH3(CH2)5CH3
    Relative density
    0,68
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
  • HEXANE

    Formula
    C6H14
    Relative density
    0,66
    Viscosity
    0.4 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as are mechanical shaft seals.
    Remarks
    Used as a solvent, especially as an extraction solvent for vegetable oils, also as a paint diluent and as an alcohol denaturant
  • HONEY

    Alternative name
    Bees honey
    Relative density
    Approx. 1.2
    Viscosity
    1,000-11,000 cPs. depending on how much moisture has been removed and on pumping temperature
    Pump construction
    Pump construction depends on requirements of the end user. A pump suited for sanitary service may be specified.
  • HOT MELT

    Pump construction
    Pump construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel depending on the corrosive nature of individual adhesives. Elastomers also vary depending on individual adhesives and pumping temperature. Shaft sealing may be packing or special lip seals. Generally, adhesives are very viscous and the pump design must be capable of handling those viscosities. Adhesives may also contain abrasives and the pump design must be capable of handling particulate.
  • HUMBLETHERM 500

    Pump construction
    See Heat Transfer Liquids
  • HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

    Alternative name
    Fire resistant hydraulic fluids. Among the more common fire resistant hydraulic fluids are those made up of water and glycol with some thickeners and additives, phosphate esters and water in oil emulsions with additives.
    Viscosity
    Viscosities of the above liquids range from 22 to 110 cPs. at ambient temperatures
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomers vary depending on the particular grade of hydraulic fluid. Hydraulic fluids are normally used at high differential pressures and a pump design capable of those pressures must be used.
  • HYDRAULIC OILS

    Viscosity
    Normally in the 22 to 66 cPs. range at ambient temperatures
    Pump construction
    Also See Hydraulic Fluids. Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomers vary depending on the particular grade of hydraulic fluid. Hydraulic fluids are normally used at high differential pressures and a pump design capable of those pressures must be used.
  • HYDROCARBONS

    Pump construction
    Hydrocarbons are compounds of carbon and hydrogen. Under ordinary conditions some of the hydrocarbons are gases, others are liquids, and still others are solids. Propane, gasoline, kerosene, lubricating oils, Vaseline and paraffin are all hydrocarbons. Other hydrocarbons serve as the raw material for dyes, medicines and other end products.
  • INK

    Pump construction
    See Printing Ink
  • INSECTICIDES

    Pump construction
    Specific recommendations are not possible as there is such a diversity in chemical make up of individual insectisides.
    Remarks
    A broad term used almost synonymously with fumigants to mean those liquids, sprays or gases used to control harmful insects.
  • IRON OXIDE SLURRY

    Alternative name
    Ferrous oxide slurry
    Viscosity
    22 to 1,648 cPs. depending on concentration, vehicle and additives
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomers depend on the solvents used in the slurry. Iron oxide is very abrasive which necessitates use of a pump suitable for abrasive liquid service.
    Remarks
    Iron oxides are used in heavy-duty paint pigments such as used in railway finishes, marine paints and metal primers. They are also used for magnetic tape, polishing compounds, as pigment in rubber products and in grease paints.
  • ISOBUTANE

    Alternative name
    2-methylpropane, trimethylmethane
    Formula
    (CH3)2CHCH3
    Relative density
    0,56
    Viscosity
    0.1 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    It is used in organic synthesis, as a refrigerant, as a fuel and as an aerosol propellant.
  • ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL

    Alternative name
    Isopropylcarbinol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol
    Formula
    (CH3)2CHCH2OH
    Relative density
    0,81.
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal. 
  • ISOCYANATE

    Pump construction
    See Toluene Diisocyanate
  • ISOPROPANOL

    Pump construction
    See Isopropyl Alcohol
  • ISOPROPYL ACETATE

    Formula
    CH3COOCH(CH3)2
    Relative density
    0,87
    Viscosity
    0.5 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    It is used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, fats, oils, waxes, gums, natural and synthetic resins, as well as in making artificial leather, dopes, films, lacquers, plastics and synthetic perfumes.
  • ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL

    Alternative name
    IPA, dimethylcarbinol, isopropanol
    Formula
    (CH3)2CHOH
    Relative density
    0,8
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used for making acetone; used as a solvent for oils, gums, resins; used as a deicing agent for liquid fuels; used in pharmaceuticals, perfumes, lacquers, as a preservative, antifreeze and rocket fuel
  • JET FUELS

    Viscosity
    1.5 to 6 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton® are recommended depending on the particular grade.
  • KETONE

    Pump construction
    See specific Ketone such as Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
  • LACQUER

    Relative density
    0,9 - 1.0
    Viscosity
    From 22 to 21,978 cPs. depending on make-up
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are required. A mechanical seal or sealless design pump may be used depending on viscosity and characteristic of the lacquer.
    Remarks
    Lacquer is used for coating metals and wood, especially furniture.
  • LACTIC ACID

    Alternative name
    Milk acid
    Formula
    CH3CHOHCOOH
    Relative density
    1,2
    Viscosity
    40 to 100 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Stainless steel is required. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended.
    Remarks
    Used in foods and beverages, as a flavoring and preservative; also used in plastics and textiles.
  • LANOLIN

    Alternative name
    Wool fat, hydrous
    Viscosity
    Widely variable, depending on amount of water
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Shaft sealing depends on the viscosity of the product.
    Remarks
    Used as an ointment base, in cosmetics; leather dressing as a finishing and softening agent and in rosin soaps.
  • LARD

    Alternative name
    Hog fat, fat
  • LATEX

    Viscosity
    Varies; generally in the range from 20 cPs. to 5,500 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Latex is used in paints, in producing special papers, in adhesives, as a bonding age in fibers and to make foam and sponge rubber.
    Remarks
    Latex is used in paints, in producing special papers, in adhesives, as a bonding age in fibers and to make foam and sponge rubber.
  • LECITHIN

    Relative density
    1.0 - 1.2
    Viscosity
    Varies widely over the range from 1,100 cPs. to 11,000 cPs. depending on make-up and temperature
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal can be used depending on liquid viscosity.
    Remarks
    It is used as emulsifying, dispersing, wetting and penetrating agent; also in margarine, chocolate and candies, animal feeds, paints, printing ink, soaps and cosmetics, blending agent in oils and resins.
  • LEMON JUICE

    Pump construction
    See Fruit Juices
  • LINSEED OIL

    Alternative name
    Flaxseed oil
    Relative density
    0,95
    Viscosity
    Ranges from 200 to 1600 cPs. in its raw or refined state. Blown or boiled linseed oil may have viscosities of 11,000 cPs. or higher.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal may be used depending on liquid viscosity.
    Remarks
    Used in making paints, varnishes, linoleum and oil cloth, printing inks, synthetic resins, caulking, soap and pharmaceuticals.
  • LINSEED OIL, BLOWN

    Pump construction
    Linseed oil which is bodied, i.e., its viscosity is increased by having air bubbled through it while heated to 125ºC / 257ºF.
    Remarks
    is used largely in interior paints and enamels.
  • LINSEED OIL, BOILED

    Pump construction
    This term is a misnomer since the oil is not boiled. Small amounts of manganese, lead or cobalt are added to hot linseed oil. They serve to accelerate the drying of the oil. Pump construction recommendations are the same as for linseed oil for the high viscosities.
  • LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS

    Pump construction
    See LP-Gas
  • LIQUID FEED

    Alternative name
    Cattle feed solution, liquid cattle feed, liquid supplement; also known by such trade names as Morea, Beef Shake, Mol-Mix, CLS, etc.
    Relative density
    1.1 - 1.3
    Viscosity
    Varies from 20 cPs. to several thousand at ambient temperatures. May go to 11,000 cPs. or more at sub-zero temperatures, depending on make-up of particular liquid feed.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are generally acceptable. A mechanical shaft seal may be used depending on liquid viscosity.
  • LP-GAS

    Alternative name
    Liquefied hydrocarbon gas, liquefied petroleum gas; propane is the best known LP-Gas
    Formula
    C3H8
    Relative density
    Sp. Gr. Propane: 0,51
    Viscosity
    1 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal is required due to the hazardous nature of this liquid.
    Remarks
    It is used primarily for a domestic fuel, an industrial fuel, motor fuel and in chemical synthesis.
  • LUBRICATING GREASE

    Pump construction
    See Grease
  • LUBRICATING OIL

    Alternative name
    Lube oil
    Relative density
    0,9
    Viscosity
    Ranges widely, depending on the grade or number of oil
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal is normally used.
  • LYE

    Pump construction
    See Sodium Hydroxide
  • MAPP GAS

    Alternative name
    Methylacetylene Propadiene, stabilized
    Relative density
    0,58 @ 16ºC / 60ºF
    Viscosity
    0.1 to 0.2 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal is required due to the hazardous nature of this liquid.
    Remarks
    It is used as a replacement for acetylene, natural gas and propane in the metal cutting industry.
  • MAYONNAISE

    Alternative name
    Salad dressing
    Viscosity
    Appears very viscous but is shear thinning.
    Pump construction
    Stainless steel construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A designed for shear sensitive liquids must be used.
  • MEAT EMULSION

    Pump construction
    Stainless steel construction is recommended due to sanitary requirements. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Meat emulsion is difficult to handle. Use a pump designed for this service.
  • MELAMINE RESINS

    Viscosity
    200 to 1000 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended. Consider use of a mechanical shaft seal or sealless design pump.
    Remarks
    They are widely used as molding compounds with cellulose, wood-flour or mineral powders as fillers; they may incorporate coloring materials. Also used for laminating, boil proof adhesives, for increasing wet strength of paper, and for textile treatment to achieve crease and wrinkle resistance. By varying percentages of the main constituents, and by the use of additives, resins with many different properties can be made.
  • MERCAPTANS

    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal or sealless pump design should be used as Mercaptan is frequently used in hazardous areas.
  • METHANOL

    Alternative name
    Methyl alcohol, wood alcohol
    Formula
    CH3OH
    Relative density
    0,97
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in the production of formaldehyde, as an automobile antifreeze, as a general solvent, as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol, rocket fuel.
  • METHYL ALCOHOL

    Pump construction
    See Methanol
  • METHYL CHLORIDE

    Alternative name
    Chloromethane
    Formula
    CH3Cl
    Relative density
    0,92
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Do not use a pump with any aluminum parts. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in making silicones, as a refrigerant, in medicine, as a fluid in thermometers, as a low temperature solvent, as a propellant in high pressure aerosols and as a pesticide.
  • METHYL ETHYL KETONE

    Alternative name
    Ethyl methyl ketone, 2-butanone, MEK
    Formula
    CH3COC2H5
    Relative density
    0,82
    Viscosity
    0.4 cPs. / 2.22 SSU
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in lacquers, dewaxing of lubricating oils, paint removers, in adhesives, dopes, manufacture of smokeless powder, in cleaning fluids and printing.
  • METHYLBENZENE

    Pump construction
    See Toluene
  • METHYLENE CHLORIDE

    Alternative name
    Chloromethane
    Formula
    CH2Cl2
    Relative density
    1,3
    Viscosity
    4 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Do not use a pump with any aluminum parts. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used as a component of paint removers, as a fumigant, solvent for alkoids, crude rubbers, oils, resins, waxes; in textile and leather coatings, refrigeration, local anesthetic, for the extraction of oils, fats, perfumes, flavors and drugs, as a propellant for aerosol and a blowing agent in foam.
  • MINERAL OIL

    Relative density
    0,8 - 0,9
    Viscosity
    From 20 to 1000 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Also see Lubricating Oils. Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
  • MOBILTHERM

    Pump construction
    See Heat Transfer Liquids
  • MOLASSES

    Alternative name
    Beet molasses, cane molasses
    Viscosity
    From a few hundred cPs. 22,000 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory but stainless steel may also be specified because of sanitary reasons. Buna n elastomers are usually recommended. Pumps are normally furnished with shaft packing.
    Remarks
    Molasses is used as an animal feed, in food for human consumption, as a raw material for Butanol and acetone; it is also mixed with urea to make an animal feed called "liquid feed."
  • MONOETHANOLAMINE

    Pump construction
    See Ethanolamine
  • MONOMER

    Pump construction
    Since monomer is a general term, there is no construction that generally applies.
  • MORPHOLINE

    Formula
    C4H8ONH
    Relative density
    1
    Viscosity
    4 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal
    Remarks
    Used as a solvent for dyes, resins and waxes, as an emulsifying agent, to make water resistant adhesives and polishes and as a corrosion inhibitor.
  • MUSTARD

    Viscosity
    Depends on the mix. Estimated 5,500 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Stainless steel construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended.
  • NAPHTHA

    Pump construction
    The term is usually applied to a narrow-boiling-range fraction of petroleum with volatility somewhere between that of gasoline and kerosene. There are many different types
  • NAPHTHALENE

    Alternative name
    Tar camphor
    Formula
    C10H8
    Viscosity
    0.8 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal may be used but should include proper circulation for any crystals formed.
    Remarks
    Used as a moth repellent, fungicide, cutting fluid, lubricant in synthetic resins, as a preservative, solvent and for textile chemicals. May be some tendency for crystals to form.
  • OIL

    Pump construction
    See specific oil, such as Lubricating Oil, Fuel Oil, etc.
  • OLEIC ACID

    Pump construction
    See Fatty Acid
  • OLIVE OIL

    Pump construction
    See Vegetable Oil
  • ORANGE JUICE

    Pump construction
    See Fruit Juice
  • ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    Pump construction
    See Solvents
  • ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID

    Pump construction
    See Phosphoric Acid
  • PAINT

    Alternative name
    Many names are used to describe various types of paints or liquids used in various stages of the making of paints, e.g., primer, abrasive paint, hot bituminous paint, latex paint, water soluble, non-abrasive, Flocoat, paint paste, paint base, alkyd base, epoxy paint, acrylic paint, etc., etc.
    Viscosity
    Varies from 20 cPs. to 5,500 cPs. normally, with some of the paste-like materials going much higher
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but stainless steel may be required depending on the paint handled. Elastomer recommendations depend on the solvent used. Many paints or paint constituents are abrasive and must be handled with a pump designed to handle abrasives.
    Remarks
    Paints are used, in addition to the normally accepted applications of protective and decorative coatings, for such things as imparting resistance to corrosion, fire or mildew and fungus growth, providing electrical insulation, reduction of frictional resistance, etc. Pumps are used for handling paints and their constituents at all stages of production. Pumps are used in feeding liquid to and taking it from sand grinders in preparation of the pigments, in the mixing and blending of the various paints when they are being compounded, for circulating, transferring and delivering directly to the point of application, such as a spray head or a striper.
  • PAINTER'S NAPHTHA

    Alternative name
    Also called naphtha, V.M. & P. - varnish makers' & painters', varnish makers' naphtha, petroleum spirits, petroleum thinner, mineral spirits, turpentine substitute, mineral thinner, mineral turpentine
    Viscosity
    Water thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction s satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Naphthas are used primarily as solvents for a variety of applications such as thinning paints and varnishes, as a source for certain petro chemicals.
  • PALMITIC ACID

    Pump construction
    See Fatty Acid
  • PAPER COATING

    Relative density
    Varies from 1.3 to 1.7
    Viscosity
    In the 20,000 cPs. range as measured on normal viscosity testing equipment. Liquid is shear thinning. The estimated viscosity as it passes through the pump is in the range of 2,000 cPs. Use of 2,000 cPs. for determining capacity and horsepower gives reasonable results.
    Pump construction
    Stainless steel construction is frequently used to maintain product color and purity. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Paper coating is abrasive and a mechanical shaft seal and pump design must be selected that are suitable for handling abrasives
  • PARAFFIN

    Alternative name
    Paraffin wax, paraffin hydrocarbon
    Viscosity
    Solid at ambient temperatures, almost water-thin when melted (melts above 120°F)
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton® elastomers are recommended depending on temperature. A mechanical shaft seal may be used.
    Remarks
    Used in the manufacture of candles, wax paper, waterproofing wood, impregnating matches, as a lubricant, for preserving eggs, in making crayons, in ointments, preservative coating for food products, phonograph records, floor polishes, cosmetics and in packing tobacco products.
  • PASTE

    Pump construction
    See Adhesive
  • PEANUT BUTTER

    Relative density
    1.1 to 1.2
    Viscosity
    Ranges from 2,000 to 22,000 cPs., varying as make-up and temperature. Normal pumping temperature is from 32°C to 82°C / 90°F to 180°F.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory but stainless steel may be used because of sanitary requirements. Buna n elastomers are recommended.
  • PEANUT OIL

    Pump construction
    See Vegetable Oil
  • PENTACHLOROPHENOL

    Alternative name
    PCP
    Formula
    PCP
    Relative density
    2
    Viscosity
    Thin. Depends on the liquid in which it is in solution.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used as a fungicide, bactericide, herbicide and as a wood preservative.
  • PENTANE

    Alternative name
    n-Pentane, amyl hydride
    Formula
    CH3(CH2)3
    Relative density
    0,63.
    Viscosity
    Thin.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is amechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    It is one of the fractions of petroleum; is used as an anesthetic, for low temperature thermometers, as a solvent in extraction processes, as a general solvent, as a blowing agent in plastics and as a pesticide.
  • PERCHLOROETHYLENE

    Alternative name
    per, tetrachloroethylene, perk
    Formula
    Cl2C: CCl2
    Relative density
    1,6
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used as a dry cleaning solvent, vapor degreasing solvent, drying agent for metals and certain other solids, solvent for rubber, waxes, tar, paraffins, gum. May be corrosive in presence of water.
  • PERCHLOROMETHANE

    Pump construction
    See Carbon Tetrachloride
  • PETROLATUM

    Alternative name
    White mineral oil, paraffin oil-white, Vaseline
    Relative density
    0,85
    Viscosity
    Grease-like at room temperatures, turns to liquid at 38°C / 100°F; has a viscosity of 22 cPs. at its melting point
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in medicine, cosmetics, dispersants, diluents, plastics manufacture, as a binder in foods, as a defoaming agent, lubricant, as a release agent and as a protective coating.
  • PETROLEUM NAPHTHA

    Pump construction
    A general term applied to refined or partially refined petroleum products and liquid products of natural gas which are distilled off in the temperature range of 177-238°C / 350-460°F
  • PHENOL

    Alternative name
    Carbolic acid, phenylic acid, benzophenol, hydrobenzene
    Formula
    C6H5OH
    Relative density
    Phenol melts at 43°C / 110°F. It is thin in the molten state.
    Viscosity
    Phenol melts at 43°C / 110°F. It is thin in the molten state.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is generally satisfactory but stainless steel may also be requested. Viton® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in making phenolic resins, epoxy resins (bisphenol-A), in weed killers, as a solvent for lubricating oils, for making a number of acids and pharmaceuticals. Hazardous liquid; rapidly absorbed through the skin, causing severe burns.
  • PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESINS

    Pump construction
    See Resins
  • PHOSPHORIC ACID

    Alternative name
    Ortho phosphoric acid, phosphoric anhydride. Phosphorus pentoxide, formula P2O5, absorbs moisture to form phosphoric acid H3PO4.
    Relative density
    Solid - 1.8
    Viscosity
    At ambient temperatures, viscosity varies from thin at the 50 and 75% strengths to a syrupy liquid at the 85% strength, to crystals at 100% phosphoric acid.
    Pump construction
    Stainless steel construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Phosphoric acid is used in making fertilizers, soaps and detergents, in pickling and rust-proofing of metals, in pharmaceuticals, sugar refining, water treatment, animal feeds, waxes and polishes and in foods. CAUTION! Phosphoric acid causes skin irritation.
  • PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

    Formula
    C6H4(CO)2O
    Relative density
    1,05
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but other construction may be requested. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in making alkyd resins, plasticizers, hardener for resins, used in making chlorinated products, insecticides and diethyl and dimenthyl phthalate.
  • PITCH

    Alternative name
    Coal-tar pitch, hot pitch, tar pitch, roof pitch.
    Viscosity
    Ranging from 22 to 1,100 cPs., depending on particular type of pitch and temperature at which it is being handled.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are usually required because of temperature. Mechanical shaft seals suited for this service may be used.
  • PLASTICIZERS

    Viscosity
    Varies widely with the particular plasticizer and the pumping temperature
    Pump construction
    For specifics on the particular plasticizer being handled, check with the user or supplier for information.
  • POLYESTER RESIN

    Pump construction
    See Resins
  • POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Alternative name
    PEG, polyoxyethylene, polyglycol or polyether glycol
    Viscosity
    varies widely, depending on the particular glycol. Generally in the range of 22 to 220 cPs., with variations beyond this possible.
    Pump construction
    PEG, polyoxyethylene, polyglycol or polyether glycol
    Remarks
    Used in making plasticizers, softeners, lubricants, as a base for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
  • POLYMER

    Relative density
    Sp. Gr. is a function of the particular polymer.
    Viscosity
    Records show that a viscosity range of 220 to 22,000 cPs. would cover most polymers pumped.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but stainless steel may also be required. Elastomer recommendation depends on the particular polymer.
  • POLYOL

    Alternative name
    Polyalcohol. Alcohols having many hydroxyl radicals are called polyols.
    Viscosity
    Varies widely, depending on the specific polyol. Generally in the range from 550 cPs. to 33,000 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are usually acceptable. A mechanical shaft seal may be used as well as a sealless design pump.
  • POLYPHOSPHORIC ACID

    Pump construction
    See Phosphoric Acid
  • POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL

    Pump construction
    Similar to Polyethylene Glycol, q.v.
  • POLYURETHANE FOAM

    Viscosity
    Varies widely from thin for the blowing agents, catalyst and amines to the order of 5,000 for the polyols or resins.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is normally satisfactory. Elastomer selection varies based on the particular grade of material. A sealless design pump is the pump of choice due to crystallization tendencies of the products pumped.
    Remarks
    Foams are used in insulating tresses and upholstery, interlining for clothing and sleeping bags, for soundproofing walls, as an insulation against heat loss, in life preservers, fish net floats, foam rubber applications, packaging and many other areas of use.
  • POLYVINYL ACETATE

    Alternative name
    PVAc
    Relative density
    1,02
    Viscosity
    Ranges from 1,100 to 11,000 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction may be satisfactory but stainless steel may also be required. EPR elastomers are generally acceptable. Attention needs to be given to speed and sealing methods with this liquid.
    Remarks
    Used in latex water paints, in hot melt and other types of adhesives, for coating and finishing fabrics, as a component of lacquers, inks and in caulking compounds and chewing gum.
  • POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVA)

    Relative density
    1.2 to 1.3
    Viscosity
    Variable, depending on the degree of hydrolysis; ranges from 400 to 40,000 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are generally acceptable. A mechanical shaft seal may be used depending on viscosity.
    Remarks
    Used in adhesives, in binders for leather, cloth and paper, in grease proof paper, as a paper size, as an emulsifying agent, as an emulsion stabilizer and thickener, for temporary protective coatings.
  • POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE

    Pump construction
    See Sodium Hydroxide
  • PRINTING INK

    Viscosity
    Varies from a few hundred cPs. to 40,000 cPs., depending on the type of ink and temperature
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is generally acceptable. Elastomers depend on the solvent used. A mechanical seal suitable for thick and or abrasive type liquids should be used.
    Remarks
    Synthetic resins are frequently used plus cobalt, manganese and lead soaps are often added to achieve rapid drying by oxidation and polymerization. Mineral oils are also used in certain inks.
  • PROPANE

    Pump construction
    See LP-Gas
  • PROPYLENE GLYCOL

    Alternative name
    Methylethylene glocol, methyl glocol
    Formula
    CH3CHOHCH2OH
    Relative density
    1,04
    Viscosity
    From 10 to 100 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in making polyester resins, anti-freeze solutions; used as a solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, perfumes. Serves as a hygroscopic agent; lubricant in refrigeration machines, plasticizer, cosmetics, solvent in foods, as a wetting agent, an emulsifier and as an animal feed additive.
  • REFRIGERANTS

    Pump construction
    See Anhydrous Ammonia and Freons
  • RESINS

    Viscosity
    Varies from a few hundred cPs. to several thousand cPs. depending on particular resin
    Pump construction
    Construction recommendation depends on the individual resin. Additives can affect pump recommendation. Some resins are shear and/or heat sensitive; reduced speeds, cooling jackets, etc., may be helpful.
  • ROOFING TAR

    Pump construction
    See Tar
  • ROSIN

    Alternative name
    Gum rosin, colophony, pine resin, wood rosin
    Relative density
    0,042361111
    Viscosity
    Varies from a few hundred cPs. to 20,000 cPs. depending on temperature and/or solvent. Rosins without solvents are often handled in the 204 to 260°C / 400 to 500°F. temperature range.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory although stainless steel may also be requested. Elastomer and shaft sealing recommendation depends on the particular rosin and temperature.
    Remarks
    Rosin is used in making linoleum, in making soldering compounds, core oils, insulating compounds, molding compounds, sealing waxes, medicines, in paper sizing, printing inks and varnishes. Rosin is combustible; gives off flammable vapors when heated.
  • RUBBER CEMENT

    Relative density
    0,6 to 0,9
    Viscosity
    Varies widely, depending on particular cement. Can range from 150 to 22,000 cPs. and higher.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. Elastomer recommendation depends on the solvent used in the cement. Mechanical shaft seals have been used successfully on this product.
    Remarks
    Used as a binder to hold materials in position until sewing or clamping is accomplished, as permanent bonds, as vulcanizing seals, in shoe manufacture, as a sound deadener, as an adhesive for paper and for repairing.
  • SHELLAC

    Alternative name
    Lac, garnet lac, gum lac or stick lac
    Viscosity
    22 cPs. to several thousand, depending on how much it has been reduced
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are usually acceptable.
    Remarks
    Used in paints, stains, varnishes, as a general binder and for making sealing wax.
  • SILICATE OF SODA

    Pump construction
    See Sodium Silicate
  • SILICONE FLUIDS

    Viscosity
    Commercially available in a range of viscosities from 1 cPs. to several thousand cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal or sealless design pump may be used.
  • SOAP

    Alternative name
    Kettle soap, soap stock, soap skimmings, liquid soap
    Relative density
    0,9 to 1.0
    Viscosity
    Varies from 40cps to 40,000 cPs. SSU and up depending on type of soap and stage in process. Soap is normally handled anywhere between ambient temperatures and 93°C / 200°F.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron or stainless steel construction is needed depending on the particular soap. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are usually recommended. Mechanical seals may be used but PTFE packing is also frequently used.
  • SODIUM CHLORIDE BRINES

    Alternative name
    Table salt, sea salt, common salt, rock salt.
    Formula
    NaCl
    Relative density
    1.1 to 1.2
    Viscosity
    Brines being solutions in water are normally almost as thin as water
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually acceptable. Avoid use of dissimilar metals in pump construction due to electrolytic action of the salt. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical seal.
  • SODIUM HYDROXIDE

    Alternative name
    Caustic, caustic soda, lye, sodium hydroxide, aqueous
    Formula
    NaOH
    Relative density
    1.1 for 10% concentration, 1.4 for 50% concentration
    Viscosity
    From water-thin to 40 cPs. depending on concentration and temperature
    Pump construction
    Concentrations up to 50% can usually be handled with cast iron construction. Elastomer recommendation depends on concentration and ranges from buna n to PTFE or Kalrez®.
  • SODIUM METASILICATE

    Pump construction
    Similar to Sodium Silicate
  • SODIUM SILICATE

    Alternative name
    Soluble glass, silicate of soda, liquid glass, water glass; similar to sodium metasilicate
    Formula
    Na2O.3.75 SiO2 to 2Na2O.SiO2 with various proportions of water
    Relative density
    1.4 to 1.5
    Viscosity
    Varies widely over a range. Normal range is from 100 cPs. to 5,500 cPs. Normally handled at room temperature.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal may be used if suitable for the viscosity and potential abrasion but packing is also frequently used.
    Remarks
    Used as a catalyst. Also used in making soaps and detergents, adhesives, pigments, water treatment, bleaching and sizing of textiles and paper pulp, as a binder for foundry cores and molds and in waterproofing mortars and cements.
  • SOLVENT NAPHTHA

    Pump construction
    See Painter's Naphtha
  • SOLVENTS

    Viscosity
    Almost all solvents are water-thin
  • SOYBEAN OIL

    Alternative name
    Soya bean oil, Chinese bean oil, soy oil
    Viscosity
    From 10 cPs. to several hundred cPs. depending on stage of process and temperature
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
  • STARCH

    Alternative name
    Hot starch, cooked starch, raw starch, starch slurry.
    Formula
    (C6H10O5)X
    Viscosity
    Varies from a few cPs. to at least 20,000 cPs., depending on type of starch, amount of liquid in the slurry, temperature, etc.
    Pump construction
    Construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel. Buna n elastomers are normally acceptable. Starches are generally shear sensitive liquids; the pump design must be capable of handling that type of liquid.
    Remarks
    It is used for making adhesives, for the sizing and finishing of textiles, in foods, in sizing paper, in making explosives, in medicines, face powders, cosmetics, bookbinding, making glucose, malt sugar, caramel and in cattle feeds.
  • STEARIC ACID

    Viscosity
    30 cPs. at 82°C / 180°F
    Pump construction
    See Fatty Acid for additional information.
  • STYRENE

    Alternative name
    Styrene monomer, vinyl benzene, phenylethylene
    Formula
    C6H5CH: CH2
    Relative density
    0,9
    Viscosity
    Styrene monomer - thin. If polymerization has taken place, or if the styrene has been mixed with other liquids, viscosity may range up to 100,000 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is normally satisfactory. Elastomers vary from Viton® to PTFE or Kalrez®. A mechanical shaft seal is frequently used.
    Remarks
    Used for making polystyrene plastics, making SBR and ABS resins, and in making protective coatings.
  • SUCROSE

    Pump construction
    See Sugar Syrup
  • SUGAR SYRUP

    Alternative name
    Liquid sugar, sugar, beet sugar, cane sugar, sucrose
    Formula
    C12H22O11
    Relative density
    1.1 to 1.5
    Viscosity
    Varies widely depending on specific gravity and temperature, e.g., 21°C / 70°F., 68 Brix syrup has a viscosity of approximately 240 cPs. while 21°C / 70°F. 76 Brix sugar has a viscosity of 1,300.
    Pump construction
    Construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel depending on user needs. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seals are frequently used.
    Remarks
    Sugar syrups are used in food, for sweetening, in candy, preserves and jams, in making soap, pharmaceuticals, carmel, as a chemical intermediate for detergents, as an emulsifying agent in such things as plasticizers, resins, explosives, glues and insecticides.
  • SULFONIC ACID

    Pump construction
    Construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel depending on the liquid. PTFE or Kalrez® are elastomers are normally used.
  • SULFUR

    Alternative name
    Brimstone, flours of sulfur, molten sulfur
    Formula
    S
    Relative density
    1,08
    Viscosity
    In the suggested handling range of 121°C / 250°F to 154°C / 310°F, viscosity varies from 9 cPs. to 6 cPs. Above 154°C / 310°F, the viscosity increases rapidly as the temperature increases until at 188°C / 370°F it is almost solid.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are acceptable. Special attention must be paid to shaft sealing because of the liquid properties.
    Remarks
    It is used in making sulfuric acid, in the pulp and paper industry, in making carbon disulfide and other chemicals and dyes, for vulcanizing rubber and in medicines.
  • SULFURIC ACID, CONCENTRATED

    Alternative name
    Hydrogen sulfate, oil of vitriol, battery acid, 660 Baume sulfuric acid (93.2%), 98% sulfuric acid
    Formula
    H2SO4
    Relative density
    1,84
    Viscosity
    Less than 160 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Because of the corrosive characteristics of this liquid consult the pump manufacturer for specific recommendations.
    Remarks
    Used in making fertilizers, as a source of many chemicals, in petroleum refining, in making paints and pigments, in production of iron and steel, in the manufacture of rayon and cellulose film, in making industrial explosives.
  • SYRUP

    Pump construction
    See Sugar Syrup
  • TALL OIL

    Alternative name
    Tallol, liquid rosin
    Viscosity
    Varies widely, depending on source of tall oil and stage in process. Can vary from 220 to 560 cPs. Generally handled in the temperature range from ambient to93°C / 200°F.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomer recommendation varies with specific product.
    Remarks
    Used in drying oils, alkyd resins, linoleum, soaps, cutting oils, emulsifiers, flotation agents, lubricants and greases, and in making rubber. Suggest checking with user or supplier of material to make sure materials of construction recommended for the pump are in keeping with materials in the rest of the system.
  • TALLOW

    Pump construction
    See Fats
  • TAR

    Alternative name
    Roofing tar; often called, although perhaps incorrectly, asphalt, or pitch
    Viscosity
    Solid or semi-solid at room temperatures; 100 cPs. to 500 cPs. at normal pumping temperature range of 204°C / 400°F to 315°C / 600°F
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are normally recommended due to temperature. A mechanical shaft seal can be used but packing or submerging the pump in the liquid are more common sealing solutions.
    Remarks
    Tar is used oftentimes for such things as coating roofs, coating cast iron pipe or gas transmission lines, etc.
  • TDI

    Pump construction
    See Toluene Diisocyanate
  • TETRACHLOROETHYLENE

    Pump construction
    See Perchloroethylene
  • TETRAHYDROFURAN

    Alternative name
    THF
    Formula
    C4H8O
    Relative density
    0,89
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used as a solvent for natural and synthetic resins. Used in coating solutions, protective coatings, adhesives and printing inks.
  • THERMINOL

    Pump construction
    See Heat Transfer Liquids
  • TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    Formula
    TiO2
    Relative density
    3,8
    Viscosity
    Varies, depending on the type of slurry being handled from 22 to 2,200 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomer recommendation depends on the solvent used. The pump design needs to be capable of handling abrasives.
    Remarks
    Titanium dioxide is used as a paint pigment, in paper coating, making floor coverings; also in printing inks.
  • TOLUENE

    Alternative name
    Toluol, methylbenzene, phenylmethane
    Formula
    CH3C6H5
    Relative density
    0,87
    Viscosity
    Thin. 1 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are usually acceptable. A mechanical shaft seal or sealless pump design may be used.
    Remarks
    Used in blending aviation gasoline, as a raw material for benzene phenol, as a solvent for paints, coatings, gums, resins and rubber cement. Used for making chemicals, in medicines, dyes, perfumes and as a source of toluene diisocyanates used in polyurethane resins.
  • TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

    Alternative name
    TDI, toluene-2,4-isocyanate; commercial grades are often mixtures of the 2,4- isomer and the 2,6- isomer
    Formula
    CH3C6H3 (NCO)2
    Relative density
    1,2
    Viscosity
    Variable depending on mixture of isomers but normally in the range of 7 to 165 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually acceptable. Viton®, PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended. TDI is normally handled with a sealless design pump.
    Remarks
    Used in making polyurethane foams q.v., elastomers and resins
  • TOLUOL

    Pump construction
    See Toluene
  • TRANSFORMER OIL

    Viscosity
    10 to 22 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
  • TRICHLOROETHANE

    Alternative name
    1.1, 1-trichloroethane; methyl chloroform
    Formula
    CH3CCI3
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE, Kalrez® or Viton® elastomers provide acceptable results.
    Remarks
    Used in medicine; as a pesticide; as a general solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, and cutting oil compounds; as a coolant and lubricant.
  • TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    Formula
    CHCl: CC12
    Relative density
    1,46
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in metal degreasing, solvent for oils, fats and waxes, dry cleaning, as a refrigerant, heat exchange liquid, as a fumigant, and for cleaning and drying small intricate parts
  • TRIETHANOLAMINE

    Alternative name
    TEA
    Formula
    (HOCH2CH2)3N
    Relative density
    1,13
    Viscosity
    110 to 440 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in cosmetics, detergents, oil emulsions, as a corrosion inhibitor, plasticizer, and insecticide.
  • TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Alternative name
    TEG
    Formula
    HO(C2H4O)3H
    Relative density
    1,12
    Viscosity
    25 to 65 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, for various gums and resins, in making lacquers and as a textile conditioner.
  • TURPENTINE

    Alternative name
    Spirits of turpentine, turps, oil of turpintine
    Formula
    C10H6
    Relative density
    0,87
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in medicine, as a general solvent, as a thinner for paints, varnishes, lacquers and as a rubber solvent and reclaiming agent.
  • UCON

    Pump construction
    See Heat Transfer Liquids
  • UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    Pump construction
    See Resin
  • URETHANE FOAM

    Pump construction
    See Polyurethane Foam
  • VARNISH

    Viscosity
    Varies from several cPs. to several thousand cPs. depending on type, proportions and temperature
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomer recommendation depends on the solvent used. A mechanical shaft seal or sealless design pump may be used.
    Remarks
    Varnish is used primarily for a protective coating, particularly of such items as furniture, woodwork and the like.
  • VEGETABLE OIL

    Alternative name
    Shortening edible oil; also may be identified by specific name such as corn oil, or cottonseed oil, etc.
    Relative density
    0,9 to 1.0
    Viscosity
    Varies from 11 cPs. to 110 cPs., depending on specific oil and temperature
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    The edible oils are used in such things as salad oils, shortenings, margarine, etc.
  • VINYL ACETATE

    Formula
    CH3COOCH: CH2
    Relative density
    0,93
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory although other construction may be requested by the end user. PTFE or Kalrez® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in making polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl chloride-acetate resins. These materials are used particularly in latex paints, adhesives and textile finishing.
  • VISCOSE

    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Pumps are normally supplied with shaft packing.
    Remarks
    Much of the viscose ends up as cellophane or rayon fibers
  • WATER

    Formula
    H2O
    Relative density
    1
    Viscosity
    1 cPs.
    Pump construction
    Construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel. Elastomer recommendation depends on the particular service.
  • WATER GLASS

    Pump construction
    See Sodium Silicate
  • WAX

    Alternative name
    Liquid wax, molten wax, beeswax, paraffin
    Relative density
    From 0,80 to 1.0 range
    Viscosity
    From water-thin to several thousand cPs. depending on origin and temperature. Many waxes are handled in the temperature range of 93°C / 200°F to 121°C / 250°F.
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is usually acceptable. Shaft packing is normally supplied. Abrasion resistant materials may be required due to fillers.
    Remarks
    Waxes are used as protective coatings for furniture, floors, automobiles and machine tools, in the food preserving process, making paper and the packaging industry, printing inks, cosmetics, candles, waterproofing and in lubricant manufacture.
  • WHEY

    Alternative name
    Milk serum
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Stainless steel construction is normally required. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal. This liquid is normally handled with a pump designed for sanitary service.
  • WOOD ALCOHOL

    Pump construction
    See Methanol
  • XYLENE

    Alternative name
    Xylol, dimethylbenzene
    Formula
    C6H4(CH3)
    Viscosity
    Thin
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.
    Remarks
    Used in aviation gasoline, in protective coatings, as a solvent for alkyd resins, lacquers, enamels and rubber cements.
  • YEAST

    Alternative name
    Barm. Information given below also applies to terms such as spent yeast and yeast slurry.
    Viscosity
    Viscosity varies from slightly more than the viscosity of water to that of heavy cream, depending on the type of yeast and its use.
    Pump construction
    Stainless steel construction is normally required. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal. This liquid is usually handled with a pump designed for sanitary service.
    Remarks
    It is used for the fermentation of sugars, molasses and cereal grains for alcohol brewing, medicine and making bread
  • ZINC OXIDE

    Alternative name
    Zinc oxide coating, zinc oxide slurry
    Viscosity
    44 to 220 cPs
    Pump construction
    Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton® elastomers are usually acceptable. A pump designed for abrasive service must be used.
    Remarks
    Used as a filler and accelerator-activator in rubber and plastics, as a pigment in paints, in medicines and cosmetics.

constructions

industry

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